The Yakovlev Design Bureau started developing Yak-130 in 1991 as the competitor in the Russian Air Force's tender for a new trainer aircraft. Since 1993 till 1999 the development programme had been continued in cooperation with the Italian company Aermacchi within the framework of the Yak/AEM-130 joint international programme aimed at "westernisation" of the aircraft. The Yakovlev Design Bureau came later to upgrade, all by itself, the Yak-130 design to a combat trainer configuration to meet revised tactical and technical requirements of the Russian Air Force for both basic and advanced trainer and light combat aircraft.
Two contracts on delivery of the Yak-130 combat trainer have been signed and are now being executed: 12 aircraft for the Russian Air Force; 16 aircraft for the Algerian Air Force. Talks on delivery to other customers are underway.
|Start of the development programme
|Maiden flight of the trainer demonstrator
|Winner in the Russian Air Force tender
|Maiden flight of the first prototype
|Contract on delivery to the Russian Air Force
|First export contract
INTEGRATED TRAINING SYSTEM
In the early 1990s primary and basic training of Russian military jet pilots was accomplished on the L-29 and L-39 jet trainers. However, these aircraft could not help to form air student's flying skills adequate for the transition to the 4th generation fighters because of the great gap in flight performance with the latter. Whereas employing two-seat versions of combat aircraft for advanced training was inefficient due to high flight and maintenance costs.
Taking into account these concerns the Yakovlev Design Bureau proposed a concept of a fully integrated training system (ITS) with modern jet trainer at its core. The ITS should cover all scholarship phases, ranging from air student selection and academic studies, to primary, basic and advanced flight training, combat employment and type conversion training, to provide training of highly skilled pilots in shorter time and at lower cost.
The Yak-130-based ITS includes computerised classrooms, specialised procedural, operational flight and full-mission simulators, primary trainer aircraft (piston-engined Yak-52M or Yak-152) and its core element - Yak-130 combat trainer aircraft.
Yak-130 alone covers up to 80% of the flight training programme including combat missions with simulated and real weapon employment
Yak-130 is optimised for fighter pilot training, including flight proficiency, navigation and weapon delivery skills, development of situational awareness and tactical "out-of-cabin" thinking, decision-making in complex and time-critical situations.
Yak-130 is also a very cost-effective trainer as its flight hour costs 4-6 times less than that of a 4th generation fighter.
The ITS unified information-software system and training management and control system provide data format compatibility in both ground-based and airborne parts of the system, automated syllabi generation and scheduling, training flight planning and debriefing, individual student progress tracking, etc.
The Yak-130 two-seat combat trainer aircraft is designed to provide high-quality basic, advanced, tactical and type conversion pilot training for all current and prospective front-line combat aircraft, as well as engage ground and aerial targets by day and night in fair and adverse weather conditions.
Yak-130 © Konstantinos Panitsidis
Yak-130 is an effective "flight desk" designed to master various flight modes: takeoff, landing, standard and advanced manoeuvres, navigation, low-altitude, IFR, night and formation flying. Instructor helps student gain confidence and proficiency in standard and simulated (degraded/emergency) flight situations, such as hardware failures, pilot errors, etc. Simulation is provided by the onboard training subsystem which also models combat scenarios with various targets and threats for efficient tactical training.
Besides flying schools, Yak-130 can be used in air combat centres for tactical training; in operational conversion units for type conversion training of fighter pilots; and in active military aviation units for keeping up flying and weapons delivery skills, and preserving service life of active-duty combat aircraft.
The baseline Yak-130 can be also efficiently employed in combat actions as light attack aircraft to defeat surface and aerial targets in low-intensity conflicts.
Two AI-222-25 engines
Quadruple fly-by-wire system
Advanced onboard navigation and attack system
Cockpit with up-to-date controls, MFDs, and HUD
Onboard auxiliary power unit
Onboard oxygen generating system
Onboard equipment automated testing system
Engine air inlets with doors closing at taxiing and takeoff
"Zero-zero" ejection seats providing "through-canopy" escape
Yak-130 operational advantages
simple, robust and durable airframe design
non-consuming pneumatic system needs no refilling
onboard oxygen generating system and chemical oxygen generators in
ejection seats operate autonomously with no need for refilling
onboard auxiliary power unit supplies power on the ground to ensure:
- operation of aircraft power supply system and onboard equipment without starting main engines;
- ground testing of the onboard equipment
without external power supply;
- air conditioning of the cockpit and cooling of the avionic equipment
compartments (no external air conditioner is required);
onboard automated testing system helps to enhance flight safety, cut
pre-flight preparation time, reduce nomenclature of necessary ground
support equipment, and simplify maintenance routines;
low-pressure tires, landing gear, and air intakes with FOD-prevention
doors allow operations from unpaved and unprepared airfields.
Yak-130 is an all-metal monoplane with swept mid-wing, all-moving stabilizer, fin with rudder, and three-leg landing gear. Well-developed leading edge extensions of the wing and subsonic air intakes provide stable and controllable flight at high angles of attack (up to 40 degrees).
Airframe is made of high-strength AI-Mg-Li alloys featuring no composite power elements to meet the requirement for simple and low-cost maintenance and repairs, essential for very humid-and-hot operational conditions. Some load-carrying elements of the wing and empennage are made of titanium. A number of maintenance hatches and quick-release panels on the airframe skin allow easy access to units and equipment inside the fuselage.
Wing is an all-metal trapezoid swept at a 31-deg angle on the leading edge, with a «tooth» along the leading edge, and a straight trailing edge. Wing control surfaces include two-slot extension flaps, ailerons, and two-section leading edge flaps along the entire wingspan.
Yak-130 © Konstantinos Panitsidis
Maximum deflection angles of control surfaces (degrees)
|Leading edge flaps
Crew cockpit houses the crew (student, instructor) in two tandem cabins shielded with one canopy. The canopy includes a fixed all-glass windshield and a common hinged portion uplifted to the right. The overhead glass is divided in two parts by the middle arc and internal partition. Behind the cabins, in the upper centre fuselage, an airbrake flap is installed.
A three-leg lever-type landing gear is retracted in flight. Its design allows operations from paved and unpaved airfields with soil densities exceeding 7 kg/sq.cm. Each main landing gear leg has one wheel with the hydraulic disk brake, and the nose leg has a non-braking wheel. There are two landing lamps mounted on the right and left-side doors of the main landing gear, a mudguard on the nose landing gear, and a taxiing lamp on its strut. Both the landing gear and its doors are operated (lowered and retracted) in normal conditions by the primary hydraulic system, and in emergency by the emergency pneumatic system.
The Yak-130 powerplant includes two AI-222-25 twin-shaft low-bypass turbojet engines, two air inlets, and an auxiliary power unit (APU).
AI-222-25 is a proven non-afterburning turbofan of modular design with stable operation in a wide "speed-altitude" envelope. The engine is reputed for high performance, reliability, simplicity of maintenance, low specific fuel consumption, !ow noise and smoke emissions.
Engines are started by a self-contained air starting system. On the ground it starts the engines from the APU or other operating engine; and in flight - by autorotation, with optional spinning from other operating engine or the APU. An autonomous closed-type oil system keeps on lubricating the engines during lasting aerobatic manoeuvres.
Yak-130 © Konstantinos Panitsidis
|Maximum thrust (H = 0, M = 0, ISA), kgf
|Specific fuel consumption, kg/kg*h
|Assigned service life, h
Each cabin is equipped with thrust control levers, and engines status and parameters display.
Air intakes installed under the wing extensions ensure smooth engine operation at all operational angles of attack. They are equipped with doors to protect engines from foreign object damage on the ground. Extra air valves in the upper part of the intakes serve also as anti-surge doors.
APU installed in the rear fuselage provides independent engine starting (at up to 8,000 m altitude), air supply to the air conditioning system on the ground, and standby electric power for onboard AC users on the ground and in the air.
Yak-130 is also equipped with fire-warning and fire-fighting systems designed to detect and extinguish fire in the main engines and APU
Engine automatic control system
Engines operation is managed by a duplex all-mode electronic hydromechanical automatic control system built around an electronic digital full authority controller of FADEC type with a redundant hydromechanical control loop. The automatic control system monitors engines technical status, service life reserve and working parameters, and manages power plant modes of operation, surge protection, starting.
Fuel system of a closed type continuously supplies fuel under pressure to the main engines and APU on the ground and in all flight conditions including negative g-ioad and inverted flights. It includes two fuselage and two wing fue! tanks with the total capacity of 1,700 kg, single-point pressure refuelling system, tank drainage system and fuel metering system. Two external fuel tanks can be suspended under the wing. The pressure refuelling system ensures automatic filling of all tanks including two external ones. Gravity refuelling is also possible. At customer's request the aircraft can be fitted with the in-flight refuelling system.
The quadruple analogue-digital fly-by-wire system (FBW) provides a carefree handling of the aircraft by means of the wing control surfaces, stabilizer and rudder. The FBW system maintains flight characteristics within the operational envelope for a given stores configuration, and automatically limits maximum angles of attack, normal · g-loads and rudder deflection angles in function of ram air pressure. It allows re-programming stability and controllability characteristics to simulate flight performance of a given combat aircraft. The FBW system includes air data measurement and distribution system (altitude, airspeed, sideslip angle, angle of attack, air temperature, etc.).
Hydraulic system includes two independent subsystems, primary (general) and secondary (booster), with the working pressure of 210 kg/sq.cm. Primary hydraulic system powers the flight control system, deflectable leading and trailing edge flaps, airbrake, landing gear/doors retraction/extension system, main landing gearwheels braking system, and left-hand air intake door control system. Secondary hydraulic system provides operation of the flight control system, deflectable leading edge flaps, main landing gear wheels braking system, and right-hand air intake door control system.
Pneumatic system is composed of two independent subsystems: pneumatic system for primary hydraulic system tank pressurising, and emergency pneumatic system. Emergency pneumatic system ensures landing gear and doors extension and pressurization of the secondary hydraulic system tank.
Electrical system is designed to supply the aircraft systems and onboard equipment with AC and DC in flight provided by the onboard electric generators, converters and batteries, and on the ground from airfield electric power units.
The electric power supply system consists of the primary (main) system 115/200V three-phase AC 400Hz, and secondary system 27V DC. Two batteries are an emergency DC power supply source.
LIFE SUPPORT AND ESCAPE SYSTEMS
"Zero-zero" type ejection seats allow crew to leave the aircraft in emergency through the canopy glass at airspeeds ranging from 0 to 1,050 km/h and all altitude range of aircraft. The canopy glass is fragmented by pyrotechnic cords of the glass breakup system after ejection has been initiated.
Oxygen system comprises the onboard oxygen generating system (OBOGS) designed to supply oxygen to the crew members in all flight modes at altitudes of up to 12,500 m, including emergency situations such as cockpit depressurization and crew ejection. Emergency oxygen system installed in the ejection seats is a source of oxygen for about 5 minutes in cases of the OBOGS failure and cockpit depressurization (automatically activated if over 8,000 m), ejection and subsequent parachute descent.
Air conditioning system is designed to ventilate and maintain the required air temperature and pressure in the cockpit, cool down electronic equipment compartments, pressurize external fuel tanks, supply air to the OBOGS, etc.
Protective equipment provides optimal working conditions for the flight crew and includes pilots' anti-G suits and protective helmets with oxygen masks.
The Yak-130 cockpit comprises two fully-integrated tandem cabins similar in layout and instrumentation to those of advanced 4th/4th+ generation fighters. They provide real-fighter cockpit environment with excellent visibility for both student and instructor pilots on the ground and in the air.
Yak-130 © Konstantinos Panitsidis
Both cabins are equipped with central aircraft control sticks and side engine control levers designed according to the HOTAS concept to provide for continuous flight management, improved performance and reduced stress of the crew.
State-of-the-art man-machine interface enables training in realistic scenarios with added simulation. The instructor can select and modify different training modes in flight. Up-front control panels, displays and warning indicators inside the cabins are well observed and easily accessible.
All data on the aircraft systems, equipment performance and combat employment are presented on a headup display in the front cabin, and three 6x8-in multifunction liquid crystal full-colour displays for each pilot in both the front and rear cabins.
Headup display (HUD) is a basic pilot instrument presenting flight and tactical data including aircraft attitude, altitude, airspeed and flight path symbols, critical flight mode warnings; threat and engagement zone markings, weapon delivery instructions, etc.
Multifunction displays (MFD) are primary head-down reference instruments with push-button controls ("soft keys"). Left-hand MFD presents flight and navigation data for missions flown in complex conditions: in clouds, over sea, without horizon reference, at night, etc. Central MFD presents tactical situation, navigational and cartographic data. Right-hand MFD presents equipment status data from the onboard automated testing system, recommendations for emergency procedures as well as images from electro-optical seekers of guided munitions. All MFDs are interchangeable: when any one of them fails, flight and navigation data required for safe piloting is presented on a sound one.
Flight data recording system registers cockpit instruments readouts, pilots' actions, training course and combat mission results. HUD symbology and situations inside and outside the cabins are video-recorded.
Yak-130 features advanced avionics suite typical for modern frontline combat aircraft. It includes:
- navigation aids (inertial navigation system with CPS/GLONASS receiver, radio
navigation and landing equipment, automatic radio compass, radio altimeter,
- targeting equipment (HUD for displaying targeting data from the central computer,
six MFDs, helmet-mounted target designation system, TV signal digitizing and
switching unit, data input system, data transmission line);
- communications equipment (two four-band voice and data communication radio
sets, automatic radio beacon, interphone);
- state identification equipment (IFF responder to requests made by state
identification and air traffic control systems);
- flight data recording system (onboard monitoring and recording system).
Autonomous precise navigation is provided by a strapdown intertial navigation system integrated with the GPS/CLONASS satellite navigation system receiver. Radio navigation is provided by the DME-94 and VOR/ILS/MR VIM-95 navigation and landing systems. Inertial and radio navigation data are presented on the HUD and central MFD.
The open architecture avionics suite can be easily expanded with new sensors, controls, data processors and displays, etc. It is based on three dual-redundant digital multiplexed data buses compliant with MIL-STD-1553B standard allowing future system growth. The buses are controlled by two onboard computers, also used for solving navigational and aiming tasks, calculating ballistic parameters of various munitions, generating HUD symbology, distributing video information to MFDs, forming commands from the HOTAS controls, etc.
Initial flight data (coordinates of airfields, radio beacons and waypoints) and communication channels data are entered into the memory of the main computer with the data input system. Non-volatile memory is used for data transfer to facilitate their recording, storage, uploading, and downloading for post-flight analysis and de-briefing.
Yak-130 combat trainer can deliver various types of guided and unguided munitions. It can carry up to 3,000-kg payload on nine hardpoints: six underwing, two wingtip and one underfuselage. The outward pylons and wingtip stations are used for suspension of guided missiles weighing up to 250 kg. The inward and middle pylons can accomodate up to 525-kg payload. Two inward pylons are "wet" and can carry external fuel tanks.
Stores options include guns, bombs, missiles and rockets, target designation and electronic countermeasures pods, such as:
23-mm GSh-23 aircraft gun with 120-round ammunition
KAB-500Kr guided bombs, 50-kg drill (practice) bombs, up to 500-kg aerial bombs of various types and purpose;
R-73E short-range air-to-air guided missiles;
S-8, S-13 and S-25 air-to-surface rockets;
electronic countermeasures pods with chaff dispensers (to jam radars and seekers of air-to-air and surface-to-air guided missiles) and flare dispensers (to jam IR homing heads of air-to-air and surface-to-air guided missiles). The jamming dispensers can house as many as 128 chaff/flare cartridges.
Basic targeting data is fed to the HUD. Weapon delivery commands are administered with knobs on the control sticks and throttles. Stores status is shown on MFDs.
LIGHT ATTACK AIRCRAFT
Yak-130 can be employed in low-intensity conflicts in the role of light attack aircraft armed with a range of air-to-ground and air-to-air guided and unguided munitions.
Typical combat missions:
- engagement of point ground/maritime and low-speed air targets;
- close air support;
- counterinsurgency operations;
- air patrol.
LO-HI-HI-LO - 800 km (420 nm)
2x250-kg bombs + 1 gun pod + 2 fuel tanks + 2 ECM pods
Besides advanced flight performance Yak-130 light attack aircraft has a number of tactical advantages, such as:
- increased survivability thanks to small visual signature and employment of infrared and electronic countermeasures;
- high precision navigation and weapons delivery;
- capability to operate from unprepared and soil airfields;
- high tactical autonomy and basing flexibility;
- rugged design and simple maintenance
LO-LO-LO-LO - 415 km (225 nm)
2x250-kg bombs + 1 gun pod + 2 fuel tanks + 2 ECM pods
The baseline Yak-130 has sufficient modernisation and growth potential thanks to excellent aerodynamics, excess energy and volume reserves, easily expandable equipment and weapon suites. Its combat capabilities can be augmented by accommodating more sophisticated systems, equipment and munitions, such as:
- in-flight refuelling system;
- onboard target acquisition radar;
- forward-looking IR system;
- electronic intelligence and countermeasures systems;
- medium-range guided missiles, etc.
LO-LO-LO-LO - 400 km (215 nm)
2x250-kg bombs + 1 gun pod + 2 fuel tanks + 2 IR missiles + ECM pods
Owing to high-level unification, the light attack aircraft can have up to 90% commonality with the baseline Yak-130.
Yak-130 is an easy-to-handie aircraft with good stall recovery and spin resistance characteristics. Its flight performance is similar to that of modern 4th/4th+ generation combat aircraft in the subsonic envelope, including takeoff and landing, low-speed flying, climbs, turns and vertical manoeuvres. The aircraft meets rigorous requirements for advanced flight, combat employment, and type conversion training modes.